Tuesday, December 9, 2008

The Importance of Motivation in Teaching Learning Process to Reach Learning Goal

The Importance of Motivation in Teaching Learning Process to Reach Learning Goal

by

Aji Abdussalim

Abstract

In writing this article, the writer basically has purpose in informing the reader about the role of motivation in English learning, the factors that influence student motivation in English learning and solving students’ problem through improving student motivation. By reading this article, the reader is expected to know the influences of motivation of students in teaching learning process. Finally, after knowing it the reader can improve student motivation to help students in achieving their goal.

In writing this article, the writer take some theories about the topic” the importance of motivation in teaching learning process to reach learning goal” from some books. After taking some theories the writer give some support about the theories related to the topic. Beside, the theories also support the writer opinion about the topic.

Motivation is an influential factor in teaching learning process. The success of learning depends on high or low motivation of students. It can drive learners in reaching learning goal. Therefore, motivation is the key of success in learning teaching process. Without motivation, the goal of learning is difficult to be reached. By having motivation students will be enthusiastic in teaching learning process so they will be pushed to study English well.

High or low student motivation can be influenced by external factors and internal factors. The external factors include the students’ social live, the teacher, the method and learning environment. The view of language learning in a society will influence the students’ attitude to the language being studied, and the nature and the strength of this attitude will have profound effect on the degree of motivation the student brings to class (Harmer,1988: 51). Motivation is influenced by social live where students life. Second, it is influenced by the teacher. Third, it is influenced by the method used. Fourth, it is influenced by the learning environment. The other one is internal factor that include needs, interest, and enjoyment. The needs of students can engage them to achieve learning goal. In other hand, interest also has a role in increasing motivation level of student. Then, enjoyment is also important in increasing motivation of student. If the students do not feel enjoy in learning class, the material taught is difficult to be transferred. Most researchers and methodologists have come to the view that internal factors of motivation are especially important for getting success (Harmer, 1988: 51).

I. Introduction

  1. Motivation Definition

Motivation is something that supports someone to do something. Harmer reported in his book “English Language Teaching” that motivation is some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do some things in order to achieve something (Harmer,1988: 51). In other hand, Brown defines motivation based on behavioristic and cognitive definition. Based on behavioristic brown defines motivation as anticipation of reinforcement which is powerful concept for the class room. Based on cognitive definition, Brown classified motivation definition into three categories. First based on drive theory, motivation stems from basic innate drives, so motivation have been exist since we are born. Second based on hierarchy, motivation is something that comes from individual needs. Third, based on self-control theory, motivation is something that appear if there is opportunity to make some one to make own choices about what to pursue and what not to pursue (self control) (Brown, 2001:73-75). So, motivation is one of influential factor in learning that drives learners to struggle to reach their goals in learning process and can become a stimulus in learning process. It very influences the success of learning motivation. For example, a learner who is motivated to study English because he want to get a gift from his teacher will try to study hard to get the gift that is as stimulus in the learning process. Therefore, motivation is one of the most influential factor in teaching learning process.

B. Kinds of Motivation.

Motivation can be categorized in to some categories. Based on how motivation comes from, it can be divided into two categories. They are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation rises from individual inside but extrinsic motivation come from outside of individual.

Intrinsic motivation is not influenced by external factors but it comes from individual inside factor. The internal factors might include needs, interest, and enjoyment (Marsh, 1996: 27). The needs of students can engage them to achieve learning goal. For example, a learner who learns English because he needs English skill to do communication In his social live has a high motivation in learning English in order to master English to help him survive in social live. In other hand, interest also has a role in increasing motivation level of student. If a student is interested to study English they will reach the learning goal easily. Then, enjoyment is also important in increasing motivation of student. If the students do not feel enjoy in learning class, the material taught is difficult to be transferred. So, intrinsic motivation is motivation that is created by individual self influenced by personal factors that are needs, interest and enjoyment. The learners can create motivation by their self. For example, Indonesian students who study in English speaking country are motivated to learn English because English is the language that they use in their social life. They have to learn English because they need it to survive.

Intrinsic motivation is more influence than extrinsic motivation because intrinsic motivation rises from learner self not influence by external factor. This makes a learner to be aware that they need to learn it. Brown reported in his book that intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity self. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward (Brown,2000: 164).

Extrinsic motivation is the contrary of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is influenced by external factor of learner. Marsh wrote in his book that motivation refers to external stimulus which follows as result of a certain response (Marsh,1996 : 28). In addition, Harmer explained in his book that extrinsic motivation is caused by any number of outside factors. That might include the hope of financial reward; need to pass an exam, or the possibility of future level (Harmer, 1988:51). So, extrinsic motivation is any stimulus which comes from outside of learner and which drives the learner in learning process. Any factor that comes from learner outside and that support students to study harder in learning process is called extrinsic motivation

  1. The Importance of Motivation in English Learning

Motivation is one of influential factor in English learning. Motivation is a factor of high or low of the goal (Brown, 2001: 75). It is the key of success in learning process. Without motivation, the goal of learning is difficult to be reached. By having motivation students will be enthusiastic in teaching learning process so they will be pushed to study English well. For example, a learner who does not have motivation in learning English will be lazy to learn English because there is no any stimulus that drives him or her in learning English.

D. The Purpose

In this article the writer wants to inform the role of motivation in English learning. Second, the writer also wants to inform the factors that influence student motivation in English learning. Third, the writer wants to give solution to the reader to solve students’ problem through improving student motivation. By reading this article, the reader is expected to know the role of motivation in English teaching learning process and strategy in improving student motivation in reaching the learning goal.

II. Content

A. The Role of Motivation in English Learning Process

Motivation is one of influential factor in English learning. Every learner must have motivation in English learning. Without motivation, the goal of learning is difficult to be reached. Motivation is a factor of high or low of the goal (Brown, 2001: 75). So, motivation is stimulus that comes from inside of individual (intrinsic motivation) and also can be influenced by external factor (extrinsic motivation). The motivation function is as supporter or stimulus for student in English learning so the goal of learning can be reached easily.

High or low motivation which is had by students influences the process and the success of learning process. If a student does not have any motivation to learn English, he or she will be lazy to learn English because there is no any stimulus that drives him or her in learning English. In contrary, the student having high motivation will learn English hard. For example, a student who study in Australia is motivated to study English because he wants to be able to communicate by using English. He will struggle to learn English to survive in Australia because English is the national language.

B. Factor Influencing Student Motivation

High or low of students’ motivation can be influenced by some factors. In this article, the writer classifies into two categories. They are external factors which is factors that comes from outside of individual and internal factor which is factors from individual inside

The external factors which influence students’ motivation level might include the students social live, the teacher, the method and learning environment. The view of language learning in a society will influence the students’ attitude to the language being studied, and the nature and the strength of this attitude will have profound effect on the degree of motivation the student brings to class (Harmer, 1988: 51). For example, in Indonesia many people assume that English is an international language, so they have to be able to use English in communication. Therefore it can motivate Indonesian to study English. One other major factors of a student motivation is a teacher. As we know, the role of English teaching learning process is as motivator. Therefore, high or low of student motivation is also influenced by teacher as motivator. Teacher can set learning teaching process to create the situation to be interesting so the students can be motivated. In other hand, Method is also a vital factor that influences student motivation. If the teacher apply appropriate method in English teaching learning process, the students can be more comfortable in learning process. So the goal of English learning is easy to be reached. The last factor which influences the students’ motivation level is learning environment. We can decorate class to make student to be more comfortable in learning process. We also can set sitting arrangement to make student to be comfortable in receiving the material.

Internal factor is factor that comes from individual inside. It might include needs, interest, and enjoyment (Marsh, 1996: 27). The needs of students can engage them to achieve learning goal. For example, a learner who learns English because he needs English skill to do communication In his social live has a high motivation in learning English in order to master English to help him survive in social live. In other hand, interest also has a role in increasing motivation level of student. If a student is interested to study English they will reach the learning goal easily. Then, enjoyment is also important in increasing motivation of student. If the students do not feel enjoy in learning class, the material taught is difficult to be transferred. Most researchers and methodologists have come to the view that internal factors of motivation are specially important for getting success (Harmer, 1988: 51). The success of learning will be reached easily if the students come to be interested, enjoy and love in learning process.

C. Improving Student Motivation

Increasing student motivation is one of a teacher’s responsibilities. As teacher, we must have strategies in increasing student motivation. The strategies which can improve student motivation are giving interesting material, setting good goal and creating conducive learning situation.

By giving interesting material we can improve student motivation. We need to provide them with a variety of subject and exercise to keep them engaged. We should give our student an authentic material which is close with our student’s lives. Material that is given to our students should be firmly context embedded, for example, familiar situations language and character and real-life conversations (Brown, 2001: 90). The other strategy that also important in improving student motivation is setting good goal. Teacher has to set goals that are meaningful, realistic, and achievable by students. So students will become highly motivated because they can see how these instructional goals are relevant to their personal goal. The other strategy that also important is that creating conducive learning situation. We can create interesting classroom with all kinds of visual material to make it to be more comfortable as learning environment for students. We can set the seating arrangement to make student easy in receiving material that we give in learning teaching process.

III. CONCLUSION

Motivation is an influential factor in teaching learning process. The success of learning depends on high or low motivation of students. It can drive learners in reaching learning goal. Therefore, motivation is the key of success in learning teaching process. High or low student motivation can be influenced by some factors. First, it is influenced by social live where students life. Second, it is influenced by the teacher. Third, it is influenced by the method used. Fourth, it is influenced by the learning environment.

In improving students’ motivation we need pay attention some factors. First, we must set the interesting material. Second, we must set goals that are meaningful, realistic, and achievable for students. Third we must set interesting environment. Finally, if we can applied all strategies in teaching learning process, the students will reach learning goal easily.

Reference

Brown, h. Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching . white plans, NY. Longman.

Brown, h. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles An Integrative Approach to Language Pedagogy. White plains, NY. Longman

Harmer, Jeremy.1988. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Edinburgh gate Harlow, England. longman

Marsh, Colin.1996. Hand book for Beginning Teachers. South Melbourne, Australia. Longman.

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